Dr. Sharie Stines wrote a fascinating article about scapegoating in the workplace. You can find it here: https://pro.psychcentral.com/recovery-expert/2020/06/creating-scapegoats-in-the-workplace/
Dr. Stines does a great job of explaining how scapegoating occurs and why it often occurs. In a nutshell, it often happens in an unhealthy work environment where someone who wants feelings of power or status will target someone they can't control. You will probably find a lot of similarities to childhood bullies here, but there's a much more adult element to it as well.
It's a great read! My favorite statement in this article is "Dysfunctional leaders often have huge egos to massage. Victims of workplace scapegoating are frequently unwilling to massage anyone’s ego; and, honestly, are usually oblivious to the need for catering to someone in that manner."